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How a European nation plans rail revolution

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Within the Czech countryside, not removed from Prague, a ghostly white prepare is rushing round and round an enormous loop of monitor.

From the air, the one circuit seems like an enormous mannequin railroad. Solely this one isn’t getting used for enjoyable. It’s one among Europe’s few devoted services the place new trains might be intensively examined away from public tracks.

For six months, the nameless white prepare will make limitless laps of the circuit at as much as 125 miles per hour (200 kph), permitting technicians to observe each facet of its efficiency.

In the meantime, a second prepare can be despatched to Vienna in Austria, to be examined in temperatures starting from minus 20 C to 40 C (minus four F to 104 F), blasted with snow and ice, and put by way of a wind tunnel of speeds of as much as 100 mph in Europe’s solely specialist climatic testing heart.

Why is that this necessary? Nicely, for French Nationwide Railways (SNCF) it marks the start of a brand new period: a reboot for its iconic TGV trains.

This newest era of 200 miles per hour (320 kph) TGVs can be examined to its limits for greater than two years earlier than it might begin carrying passengers in 2024.

And it’s not simply necessary for France – these leading edge double-decker trains will serve each home and worldwide excessive pace routes, beginning with Paris-Lyon and Paris-Milan.

Of the 115 trains presently ordered, 15 will exchange older TGVs on the Milan route from 2025, the place SNCF is now going through stiff competitors from Italian competitor Trenitalia. The others will exchange older trains constructed within the 1980s and 1990s for the Paris-Lyon Sud Est (PSE) route, step by step spreading to different strains because the fleet grows.

A brand new want for pace

The new TGV-Ms are currently in the testing period.

Designated TGV-M (the “M” stands for “modular”), the brand new trains are a manifestation of France’s renewed ardour for prime pace trains, which can, over the following decade, see the community prolonged to Toulouse (from Bordeaux), in addition to overseas – to Turin in Italy (from Lyon) and from Bordeaux to northern Spain.

The long run didn’t all the time look so brilliant. In 2017, French President Emmanuel Macron sidelined additional improvement of the TGV community, preferring to “reassess” funding and concentrate on “on a regular basis transport” for city areas, reminiscent of commuter railways and metros.

That angle didn’t prevail for lengthy, nevertheless, and at the same time as he was pushing local-centric insurance policies, SNCF continued to plan a brand new wave of excessive pace strains and extensions to the present community.

Six initiatives are presently in progress, three of which can finally play a key function within the formidable plan to create a Europe-wide excessive pace rail community.

Virtually 30 years after it was first mooted, SNCF’s subsequent TGV line ought to be full by 2030, extending the present Paris-Bordeaux path to Toulouse – France’s fourth largest metropolis and a serious hub for prime tech business and tourism. The 222 kilometer (138 mile) extension will scale back Paris-Toulouse journeys by greater than an hour – from the present 4 hours and 15 minutes to only over three hours.

The brand new regular for France journey

The new $26.5bn Lyon-Turin route will feature a 36 mile tunnel under the Savoy Alps.

“Persons are already turning away from airways and taking the TGV on this route,” says David Haydock, French railways professional and former editor of At present’s Railways Europe journal.

“As soon as the excessive pace line is accomplished by way of to Toulouse, much more will change – simply as they’ve on the routes from Paris to Lyon, Bordeaux, Nantes and Marseille during the last 40 years.”

Development of the primary 31 miles (50 kilometers) of monitor south of Bordeaux can be shared with a brand new worldwide hyperlink to northern Spain, though it’s prone to be effectively into the 2030s earlier than TGVs are rushing seamlessly into the Basque Area.

The ultimate part of the Sud Europe-Atlantique route will lengthen the Paris-Bordeaux line south to the Spanish border. Ultimately connecting into the Spanish excessive pace community, it’ll present a quick, direct route between Paris, the densely populated Basque area round San Sebastián, and onwards to Madrid.

Additionally necessary to worldwide vacationers would be the controversial 25 billion euros ($27 billion) Lyon-Turin route, which encompasses a 36 mile tunnel underneath the Savoy Alps. Though there’s already a busy rail route between the 2 cities, capability and pace are severely restricted by the mountainous terrain.

The efforts to attach cities throughout nationwide borders is supported by the Neighborhood of European Railways (CER), which represents 70 rail suppliers throughout the continent. “CER absolutely helps the completion of a high-speed rail community connecting all main cities, city nodes and airports,” says Alberto Mazzola, its government director.

“It would scale back rail journey time between EU capitals and main cities to underneath 4 and 6 hours and, with reasonably priced and comfy trains, rail will turn into the popular mode of transport. That is why it’s important for all [EU] member states to spend money on excessive pace rail.”

He provides: “Our analysis clearly demonstrates the numerous socio-economic and sustainability advantages. At an estimated 750 billion euros ($812 billion), the long-term financial advantages can be considerably higher than the prices – an estimated 587 billion euros ($635 billion). These connections would deliver an distinctive enhance of rail ridership and market share.

“Every member state should play its half within the completion of the corridors to make sure that the EU’s goal of doubling excessive pace rail site visitors by 2030 and tripling it by 2050 is met.”

The new line between Montpellier (pictured) and Perpignan will create a 1,000-mile stretch of high speed rail.

In the meantime, the French authorities has (after a lot stress) greenlit a challenge to plug the ultimate lacking hyperlink in what is going to turn into Europe’s longest steady excessive pace route: from London to Málaga and Seville in southern Spain. Paris-Barcelona TGVs should presently revert to common strains between Montpellier and Perpignan in southern France, extending journey occasions by an hour and operating the danger of delays from slower native trains.

The Montpellier-Perpignan line will get rid of this hole and full a exceptional ribbon of excessive pace railway operating for greater than 1,000 miles. Development of the primary part from Montpellier to Béziers is now anticipated to be accomplished in 2034, with the Béziers-Perpignan part accomplished by 2040.

Historical past of a game-changer

The TGV is facing stiff competition from Italy's Frecciarossa trains, which now operate between Paris and Milan.

Because it entered business service in 1981, TGV – which stands for Practice á Grand Vitesse, or excessive pace prepare – has been an infinite success story for France. Not solely has it slashed journey occasions on long-distance routes and stimulated financial improvement outdoors Paris, however the French rail business has exported its excessive pace rail expertise, abilities and expertise to 25 nations worldwide. Trains derived from TGV now run in Spain, Morocco, South Korea, Taiwan, Italy and america, and embrace worldwide fleets operated by Eurostar that hyperlink France with England, Belgium, the Netherlands and Germany.

TGV-M is the newest iteration of that household, promising to be 25% extra power environment friendly, 20% cheaper to purchase and function, extra versatile in its format and design, and seat 20% extra passengers than its predecessor, the TGV Duplex. On the finish of the trains’ lives, greater than 90% of the supplies used might be recycled.

Gearing up in opposition to the competitors

The current "Duplex" TGV is set to get a restyle with the new TGV-M.

All these components assist rail’s inexperienced agenda, however SNCF can also be performing in self protection in opposition to a raft of recent opponents who need a piece of France’s profitable excessive pace rail market.

Within the final 12 months, Italy’s Trenitalia has made a big impact on the Paris-Milan and Paris-Lyon routes, the place its beautiful Frecciarossa (Crimson Arrow) trains compete instantly with TGVs. Since they began in December 2021, passenger numbers on the Milan route have shot up by 58% whereas fares have fallen by a mean of seven%.

Nick Brooks, secretary basic of ALLRAIL, which represents non-state prepare operators within the European rail market, says: “This new instance and others, reminiscent of SNCF and Trenitalia competing with Spanish Railways, present how long-distance competitors between incumbents is driving modal shift to passenger rail.”

SNCF introduced AVE trains to Spain in 2021.

Having seen SNCF introduce low-cost TGVs between Madrid and Barcelona to compete with its established AVE providers in 2021, Spanish Railway RENFE needs to return the favor by beginning high-speed routes from Barcelona to Paris, Marseille and Toulouse within the subsequent couple of years. It has even said that it needs to compete with Eurostar on the Paris-London route.

Inside France, new startups reminiscent of Le Practice and Kevin Pace need to benefit from EU competitors guidelines to broaden the excessive pace rail choices past established SNCF’s TGV routes. It’s an especially costly and complicated course of, but when they will make the numbers stack up and get the trains and schedules they want, these newcomers might play a big function in an thrilling new period for prime pace rail in France.

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